According to politicsezine, Ukraine is bordered on the west by Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary; on the southwest by Romania and Moldova; on the south by the Black Sea and Sea of Azov; on the east and north by Russia. To its northwest, Ukraine is bordered by Belarus. All of these countries are part of Europe.
Ukraine shares a particularly close relationship with its northern neighbor Russia due to centuries of shared history and culture. The two countries both have a great deal of cultural influence over each other, with many Ukrainians speaking both Ukrainian and Russian as their native languages. There are also strong economic ties between Ukraine and Russia, with large amounts of natural gas being exported from Russia to Ukraine each year.
To the west lies Poland, which has been an important ally to Ukraine in recent years, particularly during its struggle for independence from Russia in 2014-2015. Poland has provided significant economic assistance to Ukraine since then, including offering financial support for reforms such as increasing energy efficiency standards in Ukrainian homes.
Ukraine also borders Slovakia to the west, which is known for its beautiful countryside and mountainside village scenery. Slovakia is home to some of Europe’s most stunning ski resorts such as Jasna Ski Resort near Liptovsky Mikulas in central Slovakia. Slovakia has also been an important ally for Ukraine in recent years, providing political support during times of crisis such as sanctions imposed on Russia following their invasion into Crimea in 2014-2015.
Finally to the south lies Romania along with Moldova which both border Ukraine’s coastline along the Black Sea and Sea of Azov respectively. Romania is known for its vibrant culture as well as its rich history spanning thousands of years while Moldova is considered one of Europe’s poorest countries yet still holds great potential due to its natural resources such as oil and gas reserves located off shore in the Black Sea basin region shared with Romania and Turkey.
Government of Ukraine
According to programingplease, the Government of Ukraine is a unitary semi-presidential republic. The President of Ukraine is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government. The President is elected by popular vote for a five-year term, while the Prime Minister is appointed by the President with the approval of Parliament. The executive branch includes several ministries, each headed by a minister appointed by the President and approved by Parliament. The legislative branch consists of a unicameral Parliament known as Verkhovna Rada, which has 450 members who are elected to five-year terms. The judicial branch consists of local courts and a Supreme Court, with judges appointed by the President with approval from Parliament.
Ukraine also has an independent Central Election Commission responsible for organizing elections at all levels and ensuring their legality and transparency. Additionally, there are other independent agencies responsible for overseeing public services such as healthcare, education, media, and social security. There are also regional governments which have varying degrees of autonomy depending on their size and population density. They have their own local councils that are responsible for local administration and are elected in local elections every four years. Overall, Ukraine’s government strives to promote economic development through structural reforms while maintaining strong democratic values such as freedom of speech and press freedom.
Recent Heads of Government of Ukraine
Since the declaration of Ukraine’s independence in 1991, the country has seen six different heads of government. The first was Leonid Kravchuk, a former Soviet politician who took office in 1991 and served until 1994. His tenure was marked by economic hardship due to the transition from a planned economy to a market economy and by Russian-Ukrainian tensions over Crimea and other disputed territories.
Following Kravchuk was Prime Minister Yevhen Marchuk, who served from 1995 to 1997. He sought to improve relations between Ukraine and Russia and oversaw the signing of a number of agreements between them. He also oversaw the passage of several economic reforms, including initiatives to privatize state-owned enterprises and reduce the budget deficit. Marchuk’s tenure ended with his resignation in 1997 due to political tensions within Ukraine.
Valentyn Symonenko then took office as Prime Minister from 1997 to 1999. He sought closer ties with Russia while attempting to balance Ukrainian nationalism with Russian influence in Ukrainian politics. Symonenko also enacted legislation aimed at reducing corruption while increasing investment in Ukraine’s infrastructure, though his efforts were largely unsuccessful due to internal political disputes and opposition within parliament. In 1999 he resigned amid public protests against his policies and was succeeded by Viktor Yushchenko as Prime Minister until 2001.
Major Political Parties in Ukraine
The two major political parties in Ukraine are the Servant of the People Party and the Opposition Platform – For Life Party. The Servant of the People Party is a pro-Western, populist party that was founded in 2016. It is led by current president Volodymyr Zelensky and supports pro-European Union policies, including reforms to reduce corruption and improve the economy. The party won a landslide victory in 2019’s parliamentary elections and currently holds a majority of seats in parliament.
The Opposition Platform – For Life Party is a pro-Russian party that was founded in 2019. It is led by Viktor Medvedchuk, who has close ties to Russian President Vladimir Putin and advocates for closer ties with Russia. The party has been seen as an ally of Zelensky’s government, despite its more pro-Russian stance, though it has also voiced opposition to some of his policies. In 2020’s parliamentary elections, the party increased its number of seats in parliament but still remains the second largest party behind Servant of the People.