On the eve of independence (1960) three parties dominated politics: Northern peoples congress (NPC), dominated by the Hausa-fulani (conservative), Action group (AG), controlled by the Yoruba and Lagos, and NCNC, led by the Ibos (the seconds more progressive). The Northern region was disproportionately more populous than the other regions, and the central federal government was weak, if only because it was new. Regional and “ethnic” competitions quickly penetrated institutions (eg the army), leading to the first military coup (1966) by Ibo generals, which was immediately followed by a counter-coup by Hausa non-commissioned officers. Theanti-Ibo pogroms led to the Biafra civil war a year later. In 1967, General Yakubu Gowon divided Nigeria into twelve federated states. Military governments attempted to reduce the power of traditional leaders in the periphery and centralized the government that had been able to rely on oil revenues since the 1970s. In 1975, yet another military government, led by Murtala Mohammad, imposed greater centralization, with nationalization of television and universities and the reorganization of trade unions on a national basis. Local government and land legislation was made uniform across the country. After the killing of Murtala, his deputy, Olusegun Obasanjo, continued the policy of his predecessor, however, adding seven states to the federation. In 1979, the military left power. The second presidential Republic was led by Shahu Shangari (National party of Nigeria, NPN). Despite the imposition of rules to stem regionalist tendencies and block ethnic impulses, divisions re-emerged accompanied by the “Islamic question”, linked in particular to the application of the shari‛a. The NPN became the party of the N, the Unity party of Nigeria (UPN) that of the Yoruba of the O and the Nigerian people’s party (NPP) that of the ibo of E.
According to PARADISDACHAT.COM, the continuation of ethno-regional, nepotistic, patrimonial practices, managerial incapacity and widespread fraud (including electoral) led to the discrediting of the civil government and the coming to power of ultranationalist soldiers led by Buhari-Idiagbon (1983). The repression led to popular uprisings and the near implosion of the political and social system. In 1985, General Ibrahim Babaginda took power and managed to keep it until 1993 through divide and rule practices., corrupt, personalistic who, however, were decentralizers of power and co-opted even peripheral and / or traditional personalities within the corrupt system (for the first time with a military government). In addition to bringing the number of federated states to 30 with the movement of the capital from Lagos to Abuja, in the geographical center of the country, Babaginda is at the origin of the religious tensions that have gripped the country since the 1990s, when Nigeria became a member of the Organization of the Islamic conference. The social crisis brought Deputy General Shonekan to power but was immediately ousted by the Sani Abacha coup in December 1993. The new regime brought the federated states to today’s 36, with Abuja as its capital and district. Corruptive and repressive practices continued with Abacha (1993-98). Died in mysterious circumstances Abacha, his successor, Abdusalami Abubakar, brought the country back to civilian rule and in 1999 the former general Olusegun Obasanjo was elected first president of the third democratic phase. Nigeria has become an important actor in regional (it is the main promoter of ECOWAS) and even continental policy. Nigeria’s international growth is due to Obasanjo’s diplomatic skills in dealing with Western governments. But inside the country, poverty and corruption have exacerbated the social crisis and ethnic competition for the grabbing of increasingly scarce resources (public and economic), first of all the land. In 2003, Obasanjo’s party (People’s Democratic Party, PDP) won a parliamentary majority and a month later Obasanjo was re-elected president in controversial elections. Nigeria actively collaborates with the USA, Great Britain, Russia, China and Iran indiscriminately in various strategic sectors. In 2003, Nigeria managed to launch the satellite NigeriaSat-1, thanks to Russian technology. Extreme social inequality and widespread injustice did not prevent the PDP from being reconfirmed in 2007 when Umaru Yar’Adua was elected president (not recognized by rival candidates). The SE continues to be politically restless, but has abandoned nationalist rhetoric and adopted direct action with attacks on oil wells and kidnappings, especially of technicians, for the purpose of extortion, justifying itself with the need to withhold oil revenues in the mining regions (battered by mining activities). The Movement for the emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) is the leader of the struggle. In the N, the main problem is the clash over the application of shari‛a, frowned upon not only by Christians, but also by moderate Muslims. Movements such as Boko Haram have launched a pro shari‛a campaign, which is intended to be extended (for Muslims only) to the whole of Nigerian territory.