Sweden is a country in Northern Europe, in the east of the Scandinavian Peninsula with (2018) 10.2 million residents; The capital is Stockholm.
There are three stages in the structure of the courts, both in general courts and in administrative jurisdiction. The first instance of the general courts are the district courts (Tingsrätter), appeals are then dealt with by the appellate courts (Hovrätter). The last instance is the Supreme Court (Högsta domstolen). In administrative jurisdiction, legal proceedings begin with the general administrative courts (Länsrätter), the first appeal instance is the appeal courts in administrative matters (Kammarrätter), and the last instance is the Supreme Administrative Court (Högsta förvaltningsdomstolen). There are also some special dishes, such as B. the labor court (Arbetsdomstolen) for labor law disputes, the market court (Marknadsdomstolen) for competition law disputes and the like.
The Swedish law attributable to the Eastern Nordic legal system (Nordic legal system) was significantly influenced by the “Sveriges rikes lag” (Imperial Code) of 1734, but unlike other continental European legal systems, it does not have a uniform civil law codification. Instead, there is a large number of individual laws next to each other, which z. Partly due to the international collaboration. European Community law also has a considerable influence. Equality between men and women has been achieved in all areas of law; The “registered partnership” has been open to same-sex couples as a marriage equivalent since 1995.
Almost the entire education system is under the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture. Recognized private schools are financially supported. The municipalities are obliged to set up a pre-school class for six-year-olds, which attendance is voluntary and which is attended by over 95% of the children. There is general compulsory schooling for ages 7 to 16 with free tuition, free school meals, freedom of teaching materials and health care. According to educationvv, the nine-year compulsory school system includes elementary school (Grundskola). This is followed by further education in the general, vocational or dual qualification upper level (Gymnasieskola), which is attended by 98% of an age group. Attending the three-year Gymnasieskola is a prerequisite for a two- to five-year university course, for which some aptitude tests have to be taken. There are 36 state universities and colleges, including the universities in Gothenburg (founded in 1954), Lund (founded in 1666), Stockholm (founded in 1960) and Uppsala (founded in 1477).
Sweden was the first country to introduce freedom of the press by law in 1766. The press law has been part of the constitution since 1949.
Press: In order to maintain the diversity of opinion and to prevent local monopolies of opinion, numerous newspapers receive state subsidies. Sweden is one of the countries with the highest newspaper density and high newspaper circulation worldwide (90% newspaper readers). In total there are over 160 daily newspapers with a circulation of 3.5 million copies. The structure of the newspaper market is shaped by a regional subscription press and a less dominant capital city press. The papers with the highest circulation are Dagens Nyheter (founded in 1864, liberal), Svenska Dagbladet (founded 1884), Göteborgs Posten (founded 1858) and the tabloids Aftonbladet “(Founded 1830) and” Expressen “(founded 1945), the regional newspaper” Sydsvenska Dagbladet “(founded 1844, conservative), the business newspaper” Dagens Industri “(founded 1976) and” Metro “(founded 1995 as the first free newspaper in Europe).
News agencies are »Tidningarnas Telegrambyrå AB« (TT, founded 1921; cooperative company owned by the press publishers), »Svensk-Internationella Pressbyrån« (SIP, founded 1927) and »Svenska Nyhetsbyrån«.
Broadcast: The organization of the radio was reorganized on January 1, 1993: three independent companies (“Sveriges Radio AB”, “Sveriges Television AB” and “Sveriges Utbildungsradio AB”) are run in the form of a foundation and legally controlled. The fee-financed public radio “Sveriges Radio” (SR) broadcasts national programs free of advertising via four national and 24 regional stations. A special feature of the Swedish radio landscape are the non-commercial “neighborhood broadcasters” that have existed since 1979 (over 1,000 broadcasting licenses). In addition, there are around 90 local radio stations, most of which are grouped together to form national networks. – »Sveriges Television« broadcasts two nationwide advertising-free television programs (»SVT 1« and »SVT 2«; since 1999 also digital) and since the end of 1997 the digital foreign satellite program »SVT Europe«. In 1999 6 new digital channels were added, including the news channel »SVT 24« and 5 regional programs. Since 1987 private television can also be received via cable and satellite. Digital terrestrial television (DVB-T) was introduced as early as 1999.