Education of Greece

Science and Culture of Greece


According to topschoolsintheusa, the education system consists of three levels: compulsory primary school, secondary school (divided into lyceums and technical schools), as well as special and higher education. There are 18 higher education institutions in the country. The largest of them: the University of Athens (1837), the universities of Thessaloniki (1925) and Patras (1966), the Polytechnic Institute in Athens (1836). In the 2000/2001 academic year, St. 148 thousand students.

Greek culture has its roots in the 3rd millennium BC. It is customary to distinguish three main periods of ancient Greek culture: preclassical (before the 6th century BC), classical (5th-4th centuries BC) and Hellenistic (2nd half of the 4th – middle of the 1st century BC). AD). In the preclassical era, the Aegean, or Cretan-Mycenaean, culture (3-2 thousand BC), the Homeric non-literate period (11-9 centuries BC) and the archaic period (8-6 centuries BC) are especially distinguished. BC), coinciding with the Greek colonization of the coasts of the Mediterranean, Black and Marmara seas. The era of the classics is the peak of the heyday of ancient Greek culture. Roman culture played an important role in the preservation of the Greek cultural heritage. During the Byzantine period, architecture and fine arts, as well as literature, which were predominantly religious in nature, reached their peak.

Modern Greek literature originated during the War of Independence. The exploits of the people are sung by A. Kalvos (1792-1869), A. Sutsos (1803-63), A. Valaoritis (1824-79). A special place is occupied by the prose of Yannis Makriyannis (1797-1864), a general of the national liberation movement, who learned to write at the age of 32. The spirit of romanticism with elements of realism distinguishes the work of Dionyssios Solomos (1798-1857), the head of the Ionic school, committed to folk traditions and language. Freedom-loving moods are also characteristic of the work of the poets of the 1st Athenian school, which was oriented towards antiquity. Folk language and national themes are approved by the founder of the 2nd Athenian school, Kostis Palamas (1859-1943). Realism in prose was developed by Emmanuel Roidis (1836-1904). The “Athenian Literary School” for the first time raised the question of the choice of a modern literary language: close to ancient Greek (kafarevus) or colloquial language (dimotic). I. Psykharis (1854-1929) led the movement for the establishment of the spoken language of Dimotics in art. In prose, prose writer and playwright G. Xenopoulos (1867–1951) and A. Papadiamandis (1851–1911) assert realism with elements of everyday life.

Pessimism is a feature of the poetry of Konstantinos Cavafy (1863-1933), the most famous poet of modern Greek literature. The poetry of Cavafy is in complete contrast to the work of Angelos Sikelyanos (1884-1951), a bright and profound poet who brought the Delphic Celebrations (1927) back to life, the author of long poetic compositions, theatrical plays and literary essays. Nikos Kazantzakis (1883–1957), the most famous and translated Greek writer. After Cavafy. His literary works include many theatrical plays, travel notes, and translations.

Greek literature enters modernism with the so-called. generation of the 1930s: Georgios Seferis (1900-71), Andreas Embirikos (1901-75), Odysseus Elytis (1911-96), Yannis Ritsos (1909-90).

The international recognition of Greek literature was manifested in the awarding of the Nobel Prize to the poets Georgios Seferis (1963) and Odysseus Elytis (1979).

The fine arts of Greece developed in line with various European schools: German in the 19th century. and French modernism in the 20th century. so-called. the Munich school is the most important circle of artists: Nikolaos Gizis (1842-1901) and Nikiforos Litras (1832-1904). By the 1920s artists absorb the experience of the latest trends in European art: the artist Konstantinos Parthenis (1878-1967), the sculptors Yannoulis Khalepas (1851-1938) and Dimitrios Filipotis (1839-1920). K ser. 20th century in the art of Greece, various directions are defined: following the traditions of the 19th century. (A. Georgiadis), using the experience of realistic European painting of the 20th century. (Yannis Moralis, born 1914), based on medieval patterns (fresco master Fotios Kontoglu, 1895-1965), as well as a trend inspired by the motifs of ancient classics. 1960s were marked by a noticeable turn towards abstract art (in painting, Yiannis Spyropoulos, 1912-90). Panagiotis Tsetsis, Vlasis Kaniaris, Nikos Kessanlis, Kostas Tsoklis are some of the most famous names in contemporary Greek art.

Education of Greece