State structure and political system of Namibia
Namibia is a parliamentary republic with broad presidential powers. The 1990 Constitution is in force.
Administratively, it is divided into 13 districts (Caprivi, Erongo, Hardap, Karas, Komas, Kunene, Ohangwena, Okavango, Omaheke, Omusati, Osha-na, Oshikoto, Otjozondjupa). Large cities: Windhoek, Walvis Bay, Tsumeb, Luderitz.
The head of state is the president, who is elected in a general election for a term of 5 years.
The supreme legislative body is the parliament, which consists of the National Assembly (72 deputies, speaker – M. Chitendero), elected in general elections for a term of 5 years, and the National Council (26 deputies – two from each district, elected by each district council for a term of 5 years). 6 years). The supreme body of executive power is the government (Cabinet of Ministers) headed by the prime minister (T.-B. Gurirab), appointed by the president.
Executive power in the districts belongs to the district councils, elected by the population for 6 years.
An outstanding statesman is S. Nui-oma, founder of SWAPO and President of Namibia.
multi-party political system. 12 parties are registered, of which five are represented in Parliament: South West Africa (Namibia) People’s Organization, Congress of Democrats, Namibia Turnhalle Democratic Alliance, United Democratic Front, Monitoring Group.
Leading business organizations: National Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Namibia, Agricultural Union of Namibia.
Public organizations: 7 trade unions, the largest of which is the National Union of Namibian Workers, the Council of Churches of Namibia, the Association of Namibian Journalists.
Domestic policy is aimed at maintaining stability in the country. The most difficult problem remains the redistribution of land. In 2000, pressure increased on the government from various quarters, even from SWAPO members, to force the purchase of land from white farmers. In 2001, one of the ministers threatened to confiscate the land if the farmers did not agree to a fair sale. At the same time, the intention was to impose a large tax on large land holdings in order to force farmers to sell the land. However, events in Zimbabwe, where the seizure of white farms led to dire consequences for the entire economy, cooled the supporters of a radical solution to the land problem.
In foreign policy, Namibia strives to develop friendly relations with all countries of the world, especially with African countries. Nevertheless, there were complications with neighboring states, in particular with Botswana, but they were resolved through diplomacy or through the International Court of Justice when it came to the disputed border territory. In 1999, a conflict arose over the construction of a canal in Namibia to divert the waters of the river. Okavango. Botswana protested, believing that this could lead to an environmental disaster in the Okavango basin, and forwarded the complaint to SADC for consideration. The construction of the canal has been suspended, but the conflict has not yet been resolved.
The number of the army is 9 thousand people. Officially, 2.6% of GDP is spent on defense; in 2001-02 this budget item amounted to $104.4 million. However, due to the sending of the army contingent to the DRC, real military spending was probably significantly higher (6.6% of GDP, according to some estimates).
Namibia has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR in 1990).
Science and culture of Namibia
According to searchforpublicschools, 1/4 of the entire state budget is spent on education and science. Primary schools are attended by 91% of children. Scientific research is carried out at the University of Namibia, at the State Archives, at the Scientific Society of Windhoek, at the Walvis Bay Department of Ecological Research. There is an Institute of Architecture in Walvis Bay. Windhoek has two libraries. Three different museums have been established in Windhoek, Swakopmund and Lüderitz. Hundreds of rock paintings of the Bushmen are a cultural heritage of world significance. Of particular interest and ongoing controversy is the discovery in 1907 of the so-called. The “White Lady” is the oldest rock painting, which is dated by radiation analysis to the middle of the 2nd millennium BC. and most experts do not consider it a work of Bushman art.