Geography of Cameron County, Texas

North America

Cameron County, located in the southernmost tip of Texas, is a region rich in diversity, both in its geography and culture. From its expansive coastal plains and barrier islands to its bustling urban centers and tranquil wetlands, Cameron County offers a unique blend of natural beauty, historical significance, and economic importance.

Geographical Overview:

According to Microedu, Cameron County is situated in the southernmost part of Texas, bordered by the Gulf of Mexico to the east, the Rio Grande River to the south, and Willacy County to the north. It covers an area of approximately 906 square miles (2,347 square kilometers) and is home to several municipalities, including Brownsville, Harlingen, and South Padre Island.


Cameron County experiences a humid subtropical climate, characterized by hot, humid summers and mild winters. Summers are typically long and hot, with average high temperatures reaching the upper 80s to low 90s Fahrenheit (around 31-34 degrees Celsius). Winters are mild, with average lows dropping into the 50s to 60s Fahrenheit (around 10-15 degrees Celsius).

The region receives moderate precipitation throughout the year, with the highest amounts occurring during the summer months due to afternoon thunderstorms and tropical weather systems. Hurricanes and tropical storms occasionally impact the area, bringing heavy rainfall, strong winds, and storm surge.

Coastal Plains and Barrier Islands:

Cameron County is characterized by its coastal plains and barrier islands, which stretch along the Gulf of Mexico coastline. The coastal plains are flat and low-lying, covered in a mosaic of grasslands, wetlands, and agricultural fields. These plains are home to a variety of plant and animal species, including migratory birds, shorebirds, and marine mammals.

The barrier islands, including South Padre Island, Boca Chica, and Brazos Island, protect the mainland from the erosive forces of the Gulf of Mexico and provide habitat for a variety of coastal species. South Padre Island, in particular, is a popular tourist destination known for its pristine beaches, recreational activities, and vibrant nightlife.

Rio Grande River:

The Rio Grande River forms the southern boundary of Cameron County, separating Texas from the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. The Rio Grande is one of the longest rivers in North America, flowing for approximately 1,900 miles (3,058 kilometers) from its headwaters in Colorado to the Gulf of Mexico.

The Rio Grande serves as a vital waterway for irrigation, agriculture, and transportation in Cameron County, providing water for crops such as cotton, citrus fruits, and vegetables. The river also supports a variety of fish and wildlife species, including bass, catfish, and migratory birds.


Cameron County is home to a unique feature known as resacas, which are old oxbow lakes and meandering channels left behind by the Rio Grande River. Resacas are found throughout the region and serve as important water sources for irrigation, wildlife habitat, and recreational activities.

Resaca de la Palma State Park, located near Brownsville, is one of the largest and most scenic resacas in Cameron County, offering opportunities for birdwatching, kayaking, and nature photography. The park’s wetlands and woodlands provide habitat for a variety of bird species, including herons, egrets, and waterfowl.

Laguna Madre:

To the east of Cameron County lies the Laguna Madre, a shallow lagoon that stretches along the Texas coast from Corpus Christi to the Rio Grande River. Laguna Madre is one of the few hypersaline lagoons in the world, known for its clear waters, abundant wildlife, and unique ecosystem.

The Laguna Madre provides habitat for a variety of marine species, including fish, shrimp, and blue crabs, as well as migratory birds and endangered sea turtles. The lagoon is also a popular destination for recreational fishing, boating, and birdwatching, attracting anglers and nature enthusiasts from across the region.

Bays and Estuaries:

Cameron County is bordered by several bays and estuaries, including the Laguna Madre, the Lower Laguna Madre, and the Brownsville Ship Channel. These waterways provide important habitat for marine life, including fish, shellfish, and crustaceans, as well as opportunities for boating, fishing, and wildlife viewing.

The Lower Laguna Madre, in particular, is renowned for its world-class fishing opportunities, with abundant populations of speckled trout, redfish, and flounder. Anglers from around the country flock to the area to fish in the shallow flats, deep channels, and mangrove-lined shorelines of the lagoon.

Economic Importance:

Cameron County plays a significant role in the economy of Texas, serving as a hub for trade, tourism, and agriculture. The Port of Brownsville, located on the southern tip of the county, is one of the busiest ports in the United States, handling a wide range of cargo including petroleum, steel, and agricultural products.

Tourism is also a major industry in Cameron County, with millions of visitors flocking to the region each year to enjoy its beaches, wildlife, and cultural attractions. The county’s diverse natural environment, including its beaches, wetlands, and historic sites, provides numerous opportunities for recreation and leisure activities.

In conclusion, Cameron County, Texas, offers a diverse and dynamic landscape characterized by its coastal plains, barrier islands, and vibrant waterways. Its humid subtropical climate provides mild temperatures and moderate precipitation throughout the year, making it an ideal destination for outdoor recreation and tourism. Whether exploring the beaches of South Padre Island, fishing in the Laguna Madre, or birdwatching along the Rio Grande River, Cameron County invites residents and visitors alike to experience the beauty and diversity of the Texas Gulf Coast.