The Egyptian culture is a culture of antiquity that emerged from various regional cultures through superimposition or conquest.
The transition from the prehistoric way of life to high culture took place in a few centuries. Essentially unaffected by foreign areas, the Egyptian culture was able to develop its treasure trove of forms with great independence. It can therefore be regarded as a model case of cultural development.
Population and Religion
The Egyptians had no term for “state”; they identified him with kingship, which was derived from God and thus rested on divine will. Divine legitimation was thus the basis of royal power, which was based on priests and officials. Initially, society was basically open, simple people were able to rise to the highest offices, but probably remained the exception, since knowledge of the script was a prerequisite. It was not until the New Reich that he was able to gain broader circles through a military career. Hereditary estates only became established through Psammetich I. (664–610 BC). At first there were no slaves; the necessary community work, e.g. B. canal and dam construction as well as pyramid construction were carried out by the obligated population during the dry and flood times. It was not until the Middle Kingdom that Egyptians appeared as slaves alongside prisoners of war. A permanent skilled workforce was also formed for building the pyramids. Royal estates were set up to supply permanent and “seasonal workers” and were administered by the civil servants. In addition to the state domains, v. a. Temples and high country officials. The basis of the Pharaoh’s income, in addition to his land ownership, was the biennial, later annual tax collection, based on the number of livestock and the size and quality of the cultivated fields. The taxes were rigorously collected. In addition to being extracted from Egyptian mines, gold has probably come since the Old and Middle Kingdoms, BC. a. but in the New Kingdom from Nubia, which became an Egyptian colony during the 18th Dynasty.
According to threergroup, since the Egyptian language only has names for the nuclear family, but not for the more distant or in-law relatives, the clan apparently did not have any special significance for the social structure. All the greater was the importance of the “household family”, which was based on the marriage usually concluded early and through free agreement. Women enjoyed greater rights than in other early societies. B. independently, without the consent of the man, conclude legal transactions. Polygamy was common in the royal family, as was sibling marriage, both of which are otherwise rare.
The older period is characterized by the severity of forms and expressions. It was only in the New Reich, triggered by the numerous contacts abroad, that there was a certain degree of relaxation. Educational goals were adaptation to social norms and, in terms of personality development, self-control.
Tanta, governorate capital in the Nile Delta, Egypt, (2018) 528 700 residents.
University (founded in 1972); Seat of a Coptic Metropolitan. An important trading center, especially for cotton; Cotton ginning, textile industry; Petroleum refinery; Railway and road junction.
Islamic pilgrimage site (tomb of Ahmad al-Badawi, founder of a Sufi brotherhood, 13th century).
Mansura, El-Mansura [Arabic »the victorious«], city in Lower Egypt, in the Nile Delta on the Damiette arm, (2018) 570,300 residents.
The administrative seat of the Dakahlija Governorate; University (founded in 1972), TH; Cotton stacking yard, textile industry, mechanical engineering; Railway junction.
Mansura was founded in 1219.
The crusade against Egypt under Louis IX, the saint of France, who was captured, failed on April 6, 1250 near Mansura.
Shubra al-Khaima [ xa ɪ -], Shubra el-Cheima [ ʃ u], city in the northern suburban area of Cairo, Egypt, (2018) 1.2 million residents.
Polytechnic University of Applied Sciences; major industry, large power plant (generates 20% of Egypt’s demand) on natural gas / petroleum basis.
Alexandria, the most important port and second largest city in Egypt, in the western Nile Delta, with (2018) 5.1 million residents.
University city with several museums.
331 BC Founded by Alexander the Great , Alexandria was the capital of the Ptolemies and seat of the famous Alexandrian Library, which was destroyed when it was destroyed in 47 BC. BC, comprised about 700,000 scrolls.
A new library building was opened in 2002 with funding from UNESCO. The lighthouse of Alexandria was among the ancient to the seven wonders of the world.