Commonwealth of Independent States, abbreviation CIS, Russian Sodruschestwo Nesawissimych Gosudarstw, abbreviation SNG, English Commonwealth of Independent States [ k ɔ mənwelθ ɔ f ɪ nd ɪ pendənt ste ɪ ts], abbreviation CIS, French Communauté des Etats Indépendants [k ɔ myno te dεze ta ε DEPA dã], acronym CEI, The loose community of states that emerged from the Soviet Union and currently consists of 10 states: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan (full member until 2005; associate membership since 2006), Uzbekistan and Belarus (as of March 2018). Georgia left the alliance in 2009, Ukraine left the alliance in 2014.
Origin: The CIS, founded on December 8, 1991 by Russia, Ukraine and Belarus through the Minsk Agreement, joined the CIS – with the exception of the three Baltic states and Georgia – on December 21, 1991 at a meeting in Alma-Ata (today Almaty) other independent former Soviet republics; the USSR was declared dissolved. After the founding member Azerbaijan initially refused to ratify the Accession Treaty in 1992, it rejoined the community in 1993. Georgia prompted v. a. security policy necessities (need for assistance in view of severe conflicts with Abkhazia and South Ossetia and a military rebellion in Mingrelia) at entry (December 1993, treaty ratification in March 1994).
The Declaration of Alma-Ata (now Almaty), adopted in December 1991, set out principles and goals the CIS among others: “Relationships of friendship, good neighborliness and mutually beneficial cooperation” on the basis of “historical roots”, the recognition and respect for state sovereignty and the right to self-determination, the principle of non-interference in internal affairs, the Mutual respect for the territorial integrity and the inviolability of the existing borders, renunciation of the mutual use or threat of violence, the protection of human and civil rights as well as the rights of national minorities. It was stipulated that the cooperation between the member states of the CIS, which according to the document is »neither a state nor a supranational entity«, is based on the principle of equality and is supported by coordinating, institutions formed on an equal basis. The members of the CIS guaranteed the fulfillment of the international obligations of the former USSR. It was declared that the CIS would remain open to other members (including states that previously did not belong to the USSR). The basis for this should be the Charter of the CIS adopted on January 22, 1993 (not signed by Ukraine).
Organs: The organizational structure of the CIS is very inconsistent. Only a few members are represented in all organs and sub-organs, especially since individual members have concluded topic-specific special agreements in the CIS framework. The highest advisory and decision-making body is the Council of Heads of State, supported by the Council of Heads of Government (both since the founding of the CIS). A secretariat took over the coordination in May 1993, which was transformed into an executive committee of the CIS in September 1999. It is based in Minsk. Other important organs came into being: the Council of Defense Ministers (February 1992), the Inter-Parliamentary Assembly (March 1992), the Council of Foreign Ministers (September 1993), the Military Coordination Unit (1993),
Development: The main motives for founding the CIS in 1991 were the intention of an orderly dissolution of the USSR and the aim of loose cooperation between its successor states; in view of the economic difficulties and the numerous ethnic and territorial conflicts within and between the now independent republics. However, tendencies towards a reintegration – dominated by Russia – of large parts of the former Union territory (regarded by Russian foreign policy as “near abroad”) soon increased. Approaches for this were z. For example, the Treaty on Collective Security (“Tashkent Treaty”) agreed in May 1992 between six countries (Russia, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan), which Azerbaijan, Georgia and Belarus joined in 1993.
Tensions developed between individual republics: especially between Russia and Ukraine (because of the division of the Soviet Black Sea Fleet and the state belonging to Crimea), between Russia and Georgia (because of the Russian nationality policy in Transcaucasia), between Azerbaijan and Armenia (because of the Armenian claim on Nagorno-Karabakh) and between Russia and Moldova (because of the Russian partisanship for the “Dniester Republic” in Transnistria). Accompanied by the mistrust of some member states, especially the Ukraine, Russia increasingly acted as a regulatory power in the community. At the instigation of Russia in particular, it was decided on June 15, 1993 to abolish the joint high command for the strategic armed forces and to set up a “staff for military coordination”, However, the nuclear weapons of the former USSR were no longer subject to which Russia secured sole control over the nuclear potential. In 1994 the CIS received official observer status at the UN General Assembly.
The tendency to deepen Russia’s relations with other CIS republics took off again in 1996: On March 29, 1996, Russia and Belarus agreed with Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan to found a “Community of Integrated States” (1999 admission of Tajikistan as a fifth member). On April 2, 1996, Russia and Belarus founded a “Community of Sovereign Republics” (confederation of states while maintaining the sovereignty rights of both countries; signing of union treaties on April 2, 1997 and December 8, 1999); As part of a new constitutional act in 2003, the official name “Union state of Belarus and Russia” was established for the state association. After Azerbaijan, Georgia and Uzbekistan left the collective security pact of 1992 in 1999, The states remaining in the pact (in addition to Russia, Belarus and Armenia, the Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) agreed in 2001 on the creation of a joint reaction force for the event of a crisis or for the fight against (especially Islamist) terrorism and signed in May 2003 an agreement for the establishment of a new military pact. As a result of this agreement, Russia stationed soldiers from a rapid reaction force in Kyrgyzstan in 2003. The political upheavals in Georgia (2003) and Ukraine (2004) and both striving for close ties to, or membership in, the EU and NATO, on the other hand, reinforced existing tendencies towards disintegration in the CIS. Turkmenistan resigned in 2005 and subsequently became an associate member. The goal of a comprehensive economic union could not be realized due to the political upheavals and internal conflicts. Therefore, some member states intensified selective economic cooperation inside and outside the CIS (e.g. Eurasian Economic Community and Shanghai Cooperation Organization). After a military conflict with Russia over the breakaway part of South Ossetia in 2008, Georgia terminated its membership (effective August 18, 2009). As a result of the conflict, Russia recognized the independence of the Georgian parts of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. After the President took office Eurasian Economic Community and Shanghai Cooperation Organization). After a military conflict with Russia over the breakaway part of South Ossetia in 2008, Georgia terminated its membership (effective August 18, 2009). As a result of the conflict, Russia recognized the independence of the Georgian parts of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. After the President took office Eurasian Economic Community and Shanghai Cooperation Organization). After a military conflict with Russia over the breakaway part of South Ossetia in 2008, Georgia terminated its membership (effective August 18, 2009). As a result of the conflict, Russia recognized the independence of the Georgian parts of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. After the President took office V. Yanukovych In 2010 Ukraine came closer to the CIS and in 2011 participated in the signing of a free trade agreement. In the wake of the political upheaval in Ukraine, the deposition of Yanukovych and the Crimean crisis, Ukraine left the CIS in 2014.