Córdoba, capital of the province of Córdoba and the second largest city in Argentina, on the Río Primero, 425 m above sea level, (2019) 1.61 million residents (urban agglomeration). The largest city is Buenos Aires according to philosophynearby.
On the edge of the pampas and at the eastern foot of the Sierra de Córdoba, Córdoba developed into an important trading center, transport hub and industrial location.
Educational institutions are university (founded 1613), technical university and other colleges, art colleges, conservatory, observatory, libraries, museums, zoological garden; catholic archbishop’s seat; Food, chemical industry, vehicle construction; major tourism, international airport.
Cityscape: Córdoba has a picturesque colonial cityscape, whose important evidence of the former Jesuit province is a UNESCO World Heritage Site (monuments of the Jesuits in and around Córdoba) belong. Important buildings from the colonial era are the cathedral (around 1687 to 1729), three-aisled with a baroque dome and mighty, articulated corner towers, the Jesuit church La Compañía de Jesús (around 1645 to 1671), single-nave with transept, and Santa Teresa (end of the 18th century) and Santa Catalina de Siena (remodeled in the 19th century), which are among the oldest surviving monasteries in the country. The town hall (Cabildo; finished around 1785, with a classical facade) houses part of the regional museum, the former house of the Spanish viceroy (Casa del Virrey, a two-story patio house; early 18th century) houses the historical museum. An example of modern Cordoba is the cultural center in the city center, which was completed in 2014.
History: Córdoba, founded in 1573, was a political and spiritual center of South America already during the Spanish colonial rule, especially through the activity of the Jesuits.
Rosario, third largest city in Argentina, 24 m above sea level on the steep right bank of the Paraná, (2019) 1.34 million residents (as an agglomeration).
Catholic Archbishop’s Seat; University (founded in 1968), Catholic university, museums, theaters, planetarium. Thanks to the favorable traffic situation and the fertile hinterland, Rosario developed into an important economic center with an agricultural industry (mills, tanneries, canning factories, large slaughterhouses), as well as the automotive, chemical, textile and paper industries; Petroleum Refinery (San Lorenzo). The important inland port (for deep-sea ships up to 7 m draft) is a transshipment point (export port) for the products of Central and Northern Argentina, especially grain and frozen meat. Since 2002 a new bridge complex (within 59.4 km there are 15 bridges with a total length of 12.2 km) connects the Paraná Rosario with the city of Victoria in the Entre Ríos department.
Rosario was founded in 1725 and laid out generously in the chessboard plan. Towards the end of the 19th century, the city saw a large influx of European immigrants.
Mendoza [men dosa], capital of the province of Mendoza, Argentina, at the eastern foot of the Andes, 760 m above sea level, in the fertile, irrigated valley of the Río Mendoza, (2019) 119 600 residents (agglomeration: 1.05 million residents).
Archbishopric; state university, three private universities, industrial college, viticulture museum, natural history and other museums; Center of a wine and fruit growing oasis, with a wine research institute, wine and sparkling wine cellars, olive oil and fruit canning factories, oil refinery, trading center; Railway and road junction, tourism, also serves as a starting point for mountain sports in the Andes (including for the Aconcagua); international Airport.
Mendoza was founded in 1561 on behalf of the governor of Chile, García Hurtado de Mendoza (* 1535, † 1609). From Mendoza, J. de San Martín and B. O’Higgins began the liberation of Chile from Spanish rule in 1815/16. In 1861 it was completely destroyed by an earthquake, soon afterwards it was generously rebuilt not far from the ruined city.
Tucuman, San Miguel de Tucuman [- mi ɣ εl -], city in northwestern Argentina, 440 m above sea level, at the foot of Nevados del Aconquija, (2019) 902 200 residents (agglomeration).
Archbishopric; University (founded 1914), Technical University, Catholic University, museums (including the Sugar Museum); Significant cultivation of sugar cane and lemons in the area, sugar factories, mechanical engineering, food and beverage industry, energy industry; Tourism; Airport.
Tucumán, founded in 1565, developed into an important trading center.
At Tucumán the Argentine general Manuel Belgrano (* 1770, † 1820) defeated the Spaniards on September 24, 1812; At the Congress of Tucumán on July 9, 1816, the United La Plata Provinces proclaimed their independence from Spain.
Wildlife in the Galapagos and nature conservation
Parts of the Galapagos Islands with their unique flora and fauna were placed under nature protection in 1959. In 1964, the Charles Darwin Research Station was set up on Santa Cruz Island (Fig. 18). Breeding programs run here for endangered species, e.g. B. for the endangered giant turtles and land iguanas. Since 1985/86 the sea surrounding the islands has been included in the national park.
With regard to the preservation of native animal species, the research station was successful. There are increasing ecological problems due to the increase in tourism (1969 approx. 1200 tourists annually, 1997 over 65000 tourists annually). The Galapagos Islands can only be preserved as an animal paradise if the visitors strictly comply with the strict national park regulations (rules of conduct).