Asia - language
Asia - languages, In Asia, there are three linguists who are also
spoken in other parts of the Euro-Afro-Asian continent:
Indo-European, Semitic and Uralic languages. Many attempts have been
made and are still being made to prove an overarching kinship
between these three clans, but while some limited common vocabulary
may be probable, it is still an uncertain hypothesis.
In addition, there are Escalut languages (Eskimo and Aleut),
which are represented by some Eskimo dialects in NE Siberia.
The Indo-European languages are Armenian in Armenia and
neighboring Turkey; Iranian languages in Iran, Afghanistan and in
enclaves in northern Tajikistan. This language group also includes
Indian languages in Pakistan and northern India, with the
exception of the part where Tibeto-Burmese languages are spoken.
The Indian languages include Hindi/Urdu, Bengali, Panjabi and
The Semitic languages, Arabic, Aramaic and Hebrew, are spoken in
Arabia and in the Mediterranean and Iran countries.
The Uralic languages in Asia are Samoan, East Yak, and a few
other languages in NW Siberia.
In addition to the above, there are a number of languages
closely related or spoken exclusively in this continent: Altaic
languages, Chinese (or Sinitic languages), Tibeto-Burmese languages,
Thai languages, Austronesian languages (formerly Malay-Polynesian
languages), Austro-Asiatic languages languages (formerly
Mon-Khmer) and finally Dravidian languages. In addition, there are
some languages that do not seem to belong in these groups.
|The language of Asia
|A number of the world's most spoken
languages are found in Asia Sort
Altaic languages are an experimental set of languages that are
far from accepted by all linguists. It contains Tongan languages
in Eastern Siberia with Manchurian enclaves in northern China,
Turkish languages in Asia Minor, Central Asia and North Siberia,
and Mongolian languages in Mongolia and Chinese Mongolia. It has
been suggested that Korean belongs to the Altaic lineage, and this
lineage is desired by some linguists extended to Japanese. See
for all countries in Asia listed by population.
Chinese consists of a number of so-called dialects, which are
also called Sinitic languages. The main Sinitic language is Mandarin
(with Putonghua or modern standard Chinese), spoken by 65% of
China's population. It is thus the world's most spoken language.
Tibeto-Burmese languages are spoken in Tibet, in Myanmar
(Burma), in neighboring areas and in pockets of Western China. The
Karen languages in Myanmar and miao-yao (hmong-man) in Guizhou and
on the Indochinese peninsula are structurally reminiscent of Tibeto-Burmese
languages. However, some linguists attribute miao-yao to austro-tai.
The Thai languages are spoken on the Indochinese Peninsula and
in southern China. The main Thai languages outside China are
Siamese or Thai in Thailand, Lao or Laotian in Laos and Northeast
Thailand, and Shan and Khamti in Myanmar. An intermediate position
between the tai and the Austronesian languages occupies the kadais
languages compiled by the American Paul Benedict in 1942. It is li
or hlai in Hainan and three languages in the border area between
China and Vietnam.
Austronesian languages are found in a vast area. They are spoken
in South-East Asia and Taiwan, as well as in Madagascar and
throughout the Pacific. In Malaysia and Indonesia, respectively.
bahasa malaysia and bahasa indonesia, which are basically the same
language and are collectively called Malay. Similarities with
Austronesian showcase the languages jakun, sakai and semang in
Austro-Asian languages on the Southeast Asian mainland consist of
the Mon-Khmer, Nicobaric and Munda language families. Mon-Khmer are
the languages mon or talaing in Myanmar, Khmer or Cambodian in
Cambodia and in the southern part of Vietnam as well as Vietnamese.
In addition, there are a large number of mountain languages, of
which only kammu in northern Laos and adjacent areas have many
speakers. The oral languages are spoken in large pockets in the
central Indian provinces south of the Ganges between the Ganges
Delta and the Narmada River and include santali and mundari.
Dravidian languages are spoken throughout southern India as
well as in enclaves in northern Pakistan and Sri Lanka. These
languages include tamil, telugu and malayalam.
Some languages that cannot be genetically determined with
certainty are the nearly extinct Ainu in northern Japan and
Sakhalin, Guilean on Sakhalin and on the Amur, Luoravetlic languages
in the far northeastern corner of Siberia, and Jakakir in a small
pocket west of Luoravetlic and ket (Yenisei-Ostjakisk) by Yenisei. A
genetically isolated language is burushaski in Hunza.
In 1842, the island of Xianggang (Hong Kong) was handed over
England "forever" when England attacked China during the first opium
war. 18 years later, the English acquired the rights to the Kowloon
Peninsula opposite the Xianggang itself. In 1898, the English forced
the Chinese to assign them the land north of Kowloon on a 99-year
lease. This area became known as: "New Territories"
From 1842, Xianggang was used as a trading center - a gateway to
China. But after the Communists' victory in China, England and the
United States introduced a trade blockade that severed the
connection. From then, Xianggang had to import all supplies by
water, and for the same reason had to increase exports. A light
industry quickly developed from which textiles, clothing, plastics
and electronics were exported. As in Taiwan and South Korea, this
development was strongly supported by the Western powers, who,
during the Cold War, were interested in promoting these "bastions"
to Communist China.
At the same time, the rise in trade and the export industry
transformed Xianggang into a center for financial capital,
communications and transport. The government's policy contributed to
this development, setting low taxes, low tariffs and anonymity and
freedom of capital movements.
In the late 1970s, China opened up to trade and foreign
investment, placing Xianggang in a position where it could reap huge
profits. It had one of the world's best natural ports, sophisticated
international investment and trade systems as well as large and
modern container terminals. 30-50% of China's total foreign trade
went through Xianggang, and from that also originated 90% of
investment in the Chinese Kwangtung province.
Almost the entire population of Xianggang is of Chinese descent,
which settled in the area following a host of immigration waves,
basically all due to the political and social changes in China
In the early 1980s, London and Beijing began negotiations on the
future of Xianggang, when the lease for most of the territory would
expire in 1997. Xianggang's population was not represented in any
way during these negotiations. Negotiations between the two
countries ended in 1984 with the conclusion of an agreement under
which China would be given dominion over the entire territory in
1997, but this would have a "high degree of autonomy" as a special
administrative region in China.
In September 1991, for the first time in 150 years, the people of
Xianggang elected members to a legislative assembly. The candidates
from the United Democratic Coalition (UDHK) won most of the seats.
It criticized both Xianggang's colonial government and China, and
advocated the strengthening of democracy.
British Governor Chris Patten reformed the electoral system and
completely separated the executive and legislative authority. China
considered these reforms to be in violation of the 1984 agreement.
In 1994, Patten implemented a plan to increase voter turnout in
the 1995 elections. This led to a new polemic with China. In
September 1995, the Democratic Party won the election to the
Legislative Council. It was against the official Chinese
interpretation of the 84 agreement. Qian again made China's
intention to dissolve this council in 1997, when it "did not take
into account the interests of all social strata" in Xianggang.
The British governor publicly blamed the Chinese authorities for
speaking only to "multimillionaires". Patten referred to the
alliance that was consolidated in 1996 between Xianggang's key
businessmen and the Beijing government.