Anemia in pregnancy is one of the most frequent complications related during this phase. It is estimated that more than 40% of pregnant women worldwide suffer from anemia.
The anemia is a blood disorder caused by a decrease in the number of red blood cells or hemoglobin in the blood. This reduction of hemoglobin results in a difficulty in transporting oxygen in the tissues of the body.
The anemia in pregnancy more precisely in the second quarter of pregnancy, this situation of fragility is accentuated. While in the first trimester of pregnancy that the woman does not menstruate reduces the loss of ironin the second trimester of pregnancy there is an increase in the production of red blood cells by the mother.
REFERENCE VALUES OF HEMOGLOBIN IN PREGNANCY
According to the Directorate General of Health, the values of hemoglobin reference to the pregnant woman are:
- 11 g/dL of hemoglobin in 1.º and 3.Th quarters;
- 10.5 g/dL in the 2.First quarter;
- 10 g/dL in the postpartum period.
TYPES OF ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY
- Iron-deficiency Anemia – Is the most common during pregnancy and is caused by a deficiency of iron.
- Pernicious Anemia – occurs because of a deficit of vitamin B12, since this vitamin plays an important role in the production of red blood cells.
- Megaloblastic Anemia – has its origin in the lack of folic acid (vitamin B9), which causes a lower production of blood cells, resulting in less oxygenation of the tissues and growth restriction of the fetus.
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY?
The most common symptoms of anemia in pregnancy are:
- Increased heart rate;
- Shortness of breath;
- Hair loss;
- Changes of the skin and fragility of the nails;
- Poor response to stress (fatigue);
- Sleep disturbances;
- Difficulties in concentration.
WHAT ARE THE RISKS TO THE MOTHER AND BABY?
The disease can give rise to a series of diseases, maternal and fetal.
Among the problems that can affect the mother, highlights the increased risk of heart failure and an increased predisposition to developing infections.
The complications can extend into the postpartum period, there is greater probability of a hemorrhage and a delay in recovery post-cesarean section.
As for the baby, growth and development can be affected, both intrauterine and after the baby is born, the long-term.
In addition to the threat of prematurity, there is a risk three times higher of death in the womb.
HOW TO OBTAIN IRON FROM THE DIET?
Iron-deficiency anemia is, without a doubt, the most common. So intake of iron is essential.
Iron can have two origins: animal and vegetal.
FOODS WITH IRON OF VEGETABLE ORIGIN
- vegetables dark-green leafy – spinach, watercress, arugula, broccoli);
- legumes (beans, lentils, broad beans, peas).
FOOD IRON OF ANIMAL ORIGIN
- red meats;
The first preventive care of the anemia is the adoption of a healthy and balanced diet that includes iron plant and the iron animal in the same meal, in order to enhance the absorption of iron by the body.
THE IMPORTANCE OF SUPPLEMENTATION
Anemia is treated by supplementation of the missing nutrients.
How to anemia in pregnancy is quite common, the doctor usually by supplementation of iron and folic acid during pregnancy to prevent both the occurrence of anemia, as the abnormalities linked to the deficit of folic acid.
These tablets with iron and folic acid should be taken before meals or during meals.
When the preparations of iron are administered by the oral route is often the appearance of the stool of green colour on dark or black. This is due to the presence of iron is not absorbed and is not harmful.
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