Many are the ways by which we can use three types of lamps, whether for simple lighting, whether for decorative or special effects.
In the use of various data systems, we should always bear in mind not only the purpose as well as the power and security, which is given by the placement of the wires and the respect to the capacity of the installation.
We start with simpler lighting circuit that uses only one bulb and a switch, which is shown in Figure 1.
In this circuit the switch only controls the lamp, it must be embedded in accessible place on the wall.
Note that one of main network goes straight to the lamp, while the other goes to the switch. We have another switch wire that goes to the lamp. No need to disconnect the two wires to break the chain. Just as the current is interrupted at one point of the circuit, before or after the lamp, for her to stop moving. In fact, for a circuit of alternating current as is powered by the local network, doesn’t make much sense to speak in before or after the lamp.
The switch has two poles and is specified as a function of maximum current and maximum voltage supports.
To determine the current of a lamp, simply divide your power by your network voltage.
For example, a 60 W light bulb 110 V network, requires a chain of:
60/110 = 0.54 to
For a single lamp of up to 100 W of power wire used in this installation may be thin, 16 or 18.
In Figure 2, we have a second kind of connection, when a switch is used to control two or more lamps.
One of the points of the mains, power, we took a driver that goes to every light that must be fed. This driver is the common pole every bulb.
The other point of food, we took a thread that should go to the switch used to control.
The other switch pole comes off a third wire that goes to the poles of the controlled lamps, closing the circuit.
The amount of lamps that can be controlled this way depends on the type of switch used.
Calculate the current of each lamp and add them to get the total current in the circuit. See if the switch is being used can support it.
If you can’t use a larger switch, i.e. one that has greater capacity.
The main problem caused by excess current is the burning of switch contacts that can culminate in your melting, if your external part is plastic.
In this type of installation, the bulbs may or may not have the same powers.
Energy saving is important in many cases. It is desirable that a system of many lamps can be the operation with two light levels.
The medium that at first glance may seem more logical to get two light levels makes use of two different powers lamps that would be controlled by two switches.
When a lamp is on we have a level, and when the other bulb is on we have another level, as shown in Figure 3.
In fact, this system has three levels of lighting, because it can trigger a lamp, the other lamp and a third option the two, when we will have the maximum power.
But, this system presents some disadvantages. The main is that we need two lamps powered by different circuits.
A way to get two levels of lighting, economical way, and making use of semiconductor diodes.
A semiconductor diode is an electronic component that conducts the current in a single direction.
The current of the power supply is switched, which means circulating in both directions, changing a ratio of 60 times per second this feature.
The placement of a diode in a circuit of alternating current, as shown in Figure 4, causes half of the chain semiciclos are cut and any appliance fed/Receive only half the power.
Connecting a diode in series with a lamp, we can then “cut” half of your power making it shine with less intensity and also spend less energy.
An interesting application of a circuit that makes use of a diode is in your living room, in that we only have a 60 W lamp or 100 W on the ceiling.
In the direct connection, the lamp receives full power and have as much light, when the reader is reading or writing, for example.
In the position in which the diode is built into the circuit, the lamp shines with approximately half of your intensity and we have “half light” ideal for a conversation, to watch tv, without tiring or force the view.
For lamps of up to 100 W the reader can use the network of 110 V BY126 diodes, 1N4004, BY127 Or Semiconductor. For lamps of up to 100 W in 220 V network diodes used can be the BY127 or Semiconductor.
In Figure 5 we show the “circuit” of this application and how to connect the diodes.
A diode is only used connected to one of the switches. The set of two switches and a diode replaces a common switch on your wall, converting any standard bulb in a lamp of two intensities.
The diode is polarized, i.e. leads the current as your position, but in this application this factor does not need to be taken into account, because whatever the semiciclo driven, the power will be the same.
For a lighting system of a Hall, with several lamps, a way to save energy is to control by sectors. Thus, in Figure 6 we have control of four bulbs two to two, alternately.
In a condition of lower consumption only two are kept lit.
Are used to connect two switches, each, two lamps of this corridor. Of course, this reasoning can be extended to the case of greater number of lamps.
We remind you that the student, amateur or professional, should seek to interpret the diagrams from its symbols and also get used to the presence of electronic components.
In fact, the modern Electrotechnical cannot dismiss in any way the electronic resources, such as diodes above and others that allow to obtain effects that otherwise would be impossible to achieve.
The common incandescent light bulbs can also be used in decoration of Windows. For this purpose we can count on the “spot” type lamps which have reflectors and that can also be installed in special systems, as shown in Figure 7.
A set of lamps of this type can be used to focus the light to the object you want to highlight in a window and draw more public attention, as suggested in Figure 8.
Also in this type of lamp can be used in the system, since your power is at maximum of 100 w. we must remember that on display there is the problem of the heat generated by lighting system that may put up the integrity of the products exhibited. Here at iTypeUSA you can get more lighting models.
The installer must provide for a good ventilation system, using high power lighting, especially in the case of common incandescent, in that most of the power, as we have seen, it turns into heat.
For the electrician can also count on various types of colored light bulbs, as shown in Figure 9.
These lamps have power ratings ranging from 5 W to 40 W and can be used to brighten up the colours, a window or frame an article that should be highlighted.
In the event that the lamps frame the article only, or make a background decor, the types of power are preferred because they can be used in greater quantity and not “erase” the product itself. Already the lights are used to illuminate properly the product, then they must be used kinds of higher power.
See you in a decorative installation of this type, the total power consumed by the system must be provided for and comply with the limitations of your installation.
A protection system is the best guarantee that in case of any problem the power is turned off, thus avoiding the danger of fires.
For a small commercial installation, and also for power saving reasons, we suggest that the total wattage of lamps fed indoors (window) does not exceed the 200 W.
With this power can be fed 40 5 W lamps, 8 of 25 W or 5. lamps 40W, which undoubtedly gives interesting light games.
In Figure 10 we recommended circuit with two control keys for games of lights of different colors, so that the shop owner can “vary” the effects switching colors overnight.
The wires used may be of common type with plastic cover, 18 gauge, since the total power is not high. The consumption per night can be calculated easily second already teach.
Fluorescent lamps can also be used in the decoration of shop Windows, with two additional advantages compared to incandescent lamps. The first advantage is that we can get more light with lower power, which means a good energy saving.
The second lies in the fact that the light of fluorescent lamps is more “white” by highlighting certain products that should be shown.
I haven’t talked to yet a third important point the use of fluorescent is the smallest not heating and therefore provision should be made for a good ventilation system.
In Figure 11, we give a typical circuit of fluorescent lamps for Windows.
Remember that fluorescent lamps can also be achieved in a variety of colors, thus enabling Visual effects in Windows.
Returning to domestic lighting, there is also the possibility to use various points of light in a single room.
A suggestion is a stronger point of light in the center position, and two or more points of light through wall sconces on the walls.
You can control these different points of light by a set of keys interruptoras, as shown in the circuit of Figure 12.
In this circuit the light levels obtained by the combination of the firings can be multiplied by two if we make use of diodes or reducers half-light as we have seen.
The central light can be of higher power such as 75 or 100 W and side lamps wall sconces, lower power such as 25 or 40 W.
The types of incandescent lamps:
It should be noted that the formats of the lamps and the types of glass used may vary, and the choice of each type depends on the application. In Figure 13, have some common types of household lamps.
The common lamp made of transparent glass provides a punctual source, which means that the shadows of the objects are more defined and is not recommended for direct lighting. These lamps are used with Globes or translucent materials chandeliers (Milky).
The other type of lamp and that has Milky glass, i.e. translucent diffusing best light, and can be used without any other additional resource, such as Globes or wall sconces.
Very important when designing a lighting system is to take into account the problem of the shadows.
In offices, classrooms, or even labour offices, the lamps should be arranged in such a way as to minimize shadows and also distribute light.
We finally have the lamps with internal reflectors like “spot” that can be installed in corners or even on the ceiling with the purpose of driving & light in a particular direction.
These lamps can also be used in posters, as shown in Figure 14.
All systems we’ve seen have many applications in home lighting or even commercial, but are static. That is, the effects they produce are varied but not constants.
For movements in the systems can be used many features, mainly based on electronics.
So, before we talk of these resources themselves, it is appropriate to provide the student a few notions of electronics to be applied to your line of work.